Cathy Callahan spent a good portion of her professional career as a window dresser for indie boutiques in Los Angeles and the surrounding area. Often when it was time for her window displays to come down, customers and passersby would want to purchase the things she’s made for display. Those requests sparked an indie craft business for Cathy who went on to sell her work at fairs like Renegade, Maker Faire, Bizarre Bazaar, and Felt Club, finding satisfaction in having her crafts live longer than just a month or two in a store window.
While she was developing her craft business, Cathy was also becoming a well-known blogger. Her blog, Cathy of California, was known as a source of vintage inspiration. Cathy has a long-standing love of vintage craft books and would order them on eBay, then post the beautiful, sometimes quirky images she found inside. For years, when you thought of a blogger who embraced 1960’s and 1970’s vintage style, you thought of Cathy. She appeared on the Martha Stewart Show in 2009 demonstrating how to make straw flowers and went on to publish a book with Chronicle, Vintage Craft Workshop, in 2011.
Last week Cathy chose to close down her blog for good. We’re Facebook friends and when she posted that the blog was going to disappear, I became curious abouty why she had decided to end this portion of her online crafty life. What makes a blogger of eight years decide that blogging is no longer something they need or want to do? Cathy’s story speaks to the way that online interactions between people in like-minded communities has changed over the last five years. When it comes down to it, the big question here is do you really need a blog in order to be successful as a professional crafter and designer now?
In an interview with CRAFT back in 2006 Cathy described her plans for her then brand new blog this way: “I have just launched my crafty website and blog. My blog will focus on crafts and design from the 1960s and 70s. I will be featuring images from my collection of vintage books, magazines and ephemera as well as some found photos,” and she stuck to this plan for several years
Reflecting on those first few months of blogging recently, Cathy described them this way. “I was really excited about it. I was getting ideas and I wanted other people to be as excited as I was. I just decided to start sharing all these images that I was finding in these amazing books. It just seemed to be my mission, my role in the craft world, to share all the inspiration from the ’60s and ’70s and I started getting this response like, ‘Oh my gosh. My mom made those. My grandma made those.”
An example of a vintage craft image Cathy posted on her blog.
At first I was excited and was posting almost daily. I will add at this point in my life I was caring for my mother who not doing very well. Doing a blog and making things to sell was a really good way for me to handle stress. I also had the time to blog so I wasn’t feeling pressured to post. I found a cool image, scanned it and up it went.
But things began to shift and her interest in keeping up the blog waned after several years.
I just read my blog start to finish before I shut it down. From my vantage point it was going really well from 2006 – 2009. It’s clear that I was excited and really into it. It started to get stale around 2009. That’s when it started to feel like a chore to me. In retrospect my idea of sharing vintage images perhaps just had about three years of life in it. And when you look back on 2006 blogging was the only game in town. Blogging is kind of time-consuming. But now there are other ways to share images and promote that take no time at all.
A blog at that time worked more or less your “calling card” – a place where you could let the world know what you were up to. But I was always out there meeting people and doing shows which is where most of my big opportunities came from. I think a lot of people thought that doing a blog was enough but to me it had to be backed up with in person interaction. The blog was a way for my publisher to see what I was all about, but my relationship with my editor began as an in person introduction through a friend who also worked at the publisher. Same holds true for my Martha appearance – my name was passed along to one of her producers by someone else who appeared on the show.
Another example of an image from a vintage craft book Cathy posted on her blog.
Because she wasn’t depending solely on her blog to develop business relationships, letting it slide didn’t feel terribly risky. And Cathy began to feel hemmed in both by the name of her blog and by its concept.
The name Cathy of California was kind of a joke. I needed a name for my Etsy shop and a friend made it up in about 15 seconds at Starbucks one morning. The idea stemmed from products that were sold in the 60s that were labeled “_______of California”. It seemed to stick and then that’s what I named my blog. Also at that time it seemed like everyone had their ‘craft name.’ Here’s the thing: that name will now forever be associated with a ‘vintage’ and that is limiting to me in terms of how I’m growing my business. Going by my own name makes much more sense and gives me more options.
Cathy will be launching an updated version of her website soon, with a focus on the jewelry, accessories, and home collections that she’s now working on full-time. There will be a nod to the old Cathy of California in an “inspiration” section of the site where you’ll be able to browse images of things that inspire her, including a selection of images from her old blog.
If you’re a long-time blogger like Cathy (and me), have you ever felt hemmed in by your blog? Has the popularity and ease of Instagram or Facebook made blogging less fun, or less relevant? And if you’re newer to the online craft scene, do you feel like having a blog is necessary for success now? Can you point to other designers and makers who have found success without a blog?
P.S. If you’re interested in how blogging can change as you change you might like this post on the benefits and pitfalls of inhabiting a tiny niche.
Sharon | the teacup incident says
This is a very timely post, Abby! With the recent spate of big bloggers taking a breather in the news its only natural to wonder why we bloggers keep at it. As Cathy points out in your post, blogging takes time and energy so it has to be fun for the blogger. Most people don’t have loads of time to devote to blogging and its a lot quicker to update on Facebook and Instagram. That said, I read blogs to get away from “sound bite” news and to feel a part of the world of the bloggers I enjoy. The difference between clicking a Facebook “like” and leaving a blog comment is similar to smiling at a stranger vs. meeting them for coffee. You may be privately amused by the first but the second feels like a brief connection that lingers with you. We go back to blogs that resonate with us and hopefully the blogger is inspired by that response to keep producing, either in blog format or another meaningful format.
Even if we never meet in real life Abby, your blog posts have an impact on my thinking and I appreciate that!
I agree. Timely post. I am a very new blogger and I’ll admit that after going through all the trouble to get it up and running I’m not sure it’s worth it. I understand the the interaction is different but honestly I feel most connected to other crafters on Instagram. Blogging is so very time consuming and I have to force myself to stop and write because I’m always ready to run off on to the next project. I probably have 20 projects that aren’t “documented” because another idea came along and I couldn’t be troubled to write with an idea like that in my head. I know that I’m new at this and I haven’t found my “flow” yet but that is my biggest struggle with the blog. Also, I feel people are reading them less and less these days in favor of Insta and the like. Seems like people are just less inclined to take the time to sit and read posts. Myself included if I’m being honest.
If writing is not something you particularly look forward to, taking a photo and sharing on Instagram can now be just as effective, if not more so, as Cathy has experienced. A blog is truly a labor of love and if it doesn’t serve your needs I don’t think you have to do it just to do it.
Lauren | Bears By Lauren says
Thank you for posting this. When you start a handmade business, so many resources are telling you that you HAVE TO HAVE A BLOG to drive traffic. I’ve personally been stressing for the last 6 months about my “blog”, which consists of nothing but a half-finished skeleton because I don’t write, I make. I have no idea what to blog about that wouldn’t feel forced. This makes me wonder now if I really do need to force myself to blog. Thanks Abby, another great article!
I think it’s important to evaluate each of these recommended steps for yourself. Just because everyone says a particular thing is important doesn’t mean it’s important to you. There are so many cases of businesses that are very successful and have built their platforms in unconventional ways. In fact, perhaps it’s best to do things differently from what everyone expects.
I’ve been thinking about this topic recently since I’m in the middle of rebranding and updating my blog and website. I enjoy Instagram and it’s great small peeks but it only gives a snippet of a project. A photo and a short blurb (I ignore the paragraphs of hashtags) is just a teaser. I want context and story and process. I want to see things from start to finish. It’s easy to miss that one important photo in the streams of “new” that flows through the app every time I log in. For me, blogs are still the best place to learn the story and details of a project, assuming the writer puts the effort into creating their posts.
I love long-form content. I resisted Instagram for a long time for exactly the reasons you describe. A picture is not enough for me. Now, I do love Instagram for what it is, but I love a great blog post more (as a reader and as a creator).
Rachel L. says
This is such an interesting and important discussion. Social media has become the best way of connecting online with customers and business contacts, so blogs are more about sharing content and displaying expertise than connecting, in general. And good content is HARD. I have a blog for my handmade business, but I only update it a few times a month, and I think of it more as a portfolio for someone who is trying to decide to buy my work or hire me for custom work. I know my blog could be so much more, but I just don’t have the desire or drive to create consistent interesting content, because it’s really hard and I’m just not sure it pays off for my business.
A blog as a portfolio is a valuable thing, even if that is all it is. It truly doesn’t need to be more than that unless you want it to be. In the end, social media in any form has got to serve your needs creatively and professionally and that’s what’s most important.
I think it’s a shame when a blogger stops. When they go over to instagram, that is another person who drops of my radar completely. Some provide a link on their blog but I’m afraid pictures don’t tell a thousand words for me. I just wonder about the pictures and what they are and turn away. I don’t have a smart phone, so those who don’t have their own link but just give out a user name, cut off the outside world. Many of us don’t have smart phones. So you might gain some visitors but you lose some too and that means loyal customers. Ditto Facebook. I will go on Facebook at a pinch to read, but I don’t interact there. The format is horrible compared to a blog. To get to the blog article today however, it seems that Cathy of California simply came to a natural end and has now gone in a new direction.
A blog I used to know cut off all comments on their blog because they used Facebook and said they couldn’t be bothered to deal with comments on their blog, we could use Facebook. Well many would not have been able to, or wanted to and so I found it rude, and I just don’t visit at all any more. They are well known, and I find it an alienating thing to do. It does make me think twice about if I want their new book or not. It feels rude when a blogger just disappears as many do, without a goodbye or thank you. Yet over the years we are told how important us the readers are to them. So important that we are not worthy of a goodbye and I find that dismissive and a little upsetting and certainly rude and it makes the blogger seem very insincere when they said they respected the readers. If that sounds too much, then I have to admit I love reading blogs. I am not a follower but an avid reader. I give loyalty, respect and my interest as a reader, sometimes I read in passing or just occasionally but other times I offer full support without being a groupie.
The irritation a blogger has with their own blog can sometimes translate as a lack of respect for the readers. Being dismissive of their own work and pressing the delete button on it overnight, can read as being equally dismissive of their reader’s tastes (who like it!). Some are just fickle and like to constantly mess around. After too much of this I give up. Yes a blog should be the domain of the blogger but they do want, need and expect readers. There can be a certain arrogance with some bloggers, that it is a one way street and we should get what we get and be happy or move on. It isn’t as simple as that and actually they want us to stay anyway, but just to love whatever they do and to say so a lot. There is a reason some blogs are around for a long time. It isn’t just that they write what we want to read, it is that they respect their readers. (I notice that I use the word respect often; I think writers certainly often get lots of that, that but often the readers are seen as a by product).
When we read, we offer our loyalty, interest and respect, not to mention this often translates into money if the blogger also sells. I have felt disrespected and disparaged by a number of bloggers who have switched their comments off, up-sticks and disappeared, and gone off to places where they expect us all to follow. We don’t have to read no. But the flip side of the coin is, that in most cases if we didn’t the blogger would give up anyway. The kudos from having a well read blog is pretty high and leads to opportunity. I take note of those who value me and those who do not. I just read a blog post today about someone having a moan about critical readers of blogs, telling us all to go away if we don’t like it. She wasn’t even referring to her own blog. I didn’t like the tone and the way she obviously liked to have a platform herself while turning the volume down on others. I will probably take her own advice. There are other colours than pink anyway. Not a good post as they are currently starting to sell products and she certainly didn’t endear herself to me. Her blog set up didn’t allow me a voice, but the irony of having a good moan at readers while disallowing them one was not lost on me. Of course a blogger can’t write simply for others and must always use their own voice, but there is a prevalent idea with some (readers also support this theory), that the reader is purely incidental and all the giving is done by the writer of the blog. This simply is not true. It is a symbiotic relationship. Of course blogging is hard work, and I appreciate that (I really do) but it is not reward free.
Blogs are important to business, because they showcase who the person is. That makes an important connection and makes me want to support the person I come back to read over and over. I like them, so want them to do well. I get excited and interested in their new products. Nothing else has that effect in the same way. If I pin something on pinterest, I go back to the source and if it is a blog I become a reader and from there a supporter of their work. Pictures alone can be clicked over and passed by. It is the words I engage with. I need to start blogging but what puts me off is the perfection of other bloggers. I have a scruffy home, that no camera is allowed near, no lifestyle to emulate and probably views that alienate as much as engage. I make pretty things but worry about how to fit them in around the un-pretty bit – me! When I have worked out how to present myself, as in what to present of myself, then I will start to blog. I don’t see anything as a replacement for it, just add-owns.
A final thing, it is not work for me to read an enjoyable or informative blog. I love a long and involved post and yes I love the beautiful pictures when accompanied by words; it’s a real pleasure, often a joy and never a waste of my time. I will be sad if more and more people give it up.
Thanks so much for sharing your perspective as an avid and loyal reader of blogs, Sara. Blogging is a ton of work and I certainly don’t blame anyone who decides to either give it up or to not start. But you’re totally right that the readers are what makes blogging worthwhile. Otherwise a private journal would be better. The fact that a blog is public means that the writer is hoping for readers, for interaction, for approval (or disapproval), but most of all for feedback. If that’s what you’re hoping for as a writer than you certainly should acknowledge and respect your readers.
I have been blogging since 2006 and have been able to maintain a weekly schedule of posts for the most part. I must say that my family pressing me to provide them with information and pictures have held me to that standard. I blog for them, and for myself – to remember and document experiences, to share with out of town family and friends. I don’t have many readers and still fewer who comment, while my family reads they do not comment so it is pretty much blogging into the void most of the time. Blogging is not my business, and I am not selling a product or service through mine so I am not motivated by needing it to make my living.
I have been an avid reader of blogs much longer than I have been blogging, and I have seen a lot of blogs peter out, or stop suddenly. I can understand why this happens. It’s sometimes hard to even follow the all the blogs I love – I often just follow my favorites on Twitter or Instagram and “binge read” their blogs less frequently. Blogging is time consuming and the need for fresh content can seem oppressive. I see some of those who used to blog moving over to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Tumblr. I am active across many platforms myself and like all of them for different reasons, but blogging provides more of what my family wants and it’s the core of my online presence even though I have many more followers and friends on every other outlet I use.
I am currently making an experiment that may not work for every one: I am upping my posts to daily or near daily. If I know I will be posting again soon I feel less pressure to make a post longer, more picture filled and more interesting. If I know I need only put up a paragraph and a picture I feel freer to select any topic at all. I hope this will spark a return of my enthusiasm for blogging and give my posts more variety and interest.
Cheryl Arkison says
I recently did a survey of my blog readers. One of the things that was most surprising to me was that a good portion (that stat is escaping me right now, but it was at least 50%) of my blog readers only read blogs. That is, they aren’t on any other form of social media. That kept me at it, knowing that there was the audience that appreciated and enjoyed the effort I put in.
It also helps that I love to write and blogging is a good forum for that.
Carley Biblin says
I started my sewing and craft blog about 6months ago. It’s not a business, just a way for me to reach out to the world. Although I like the short form social media, some things are better in blog format. I was a bit disappointed, though, when I read this blog post about the way people are interacting with blogs as a result of short-form social media:
I hope the trend does not continue too long. As bloggers, we must do our part to keep our readers engaged.
That’s an interesting post, Carley. I think in order to keep going your blog has to serve some sort of inner need that isn’t reliant on comments and shares. At it’s core it’s got to be for you and you alone, otherwise it will die.
Jenny Smith says
I know Cathy from attending Craftcation in Ventura a few years back. I attended her “Effective Blogging” seminar and she and a few other speakers pretty much said that they don’t blog very much. Let’s just say it wasn’t a very effective blogging seminar. Hee hee!
Anyway, I can relate to Cathy because I’m a bit on the fence about blogging. I feel like people have less and less time to read blog posts. I do enjoy writing them, unfortunately I am not the most diligent these days. I like Instagram! What can I say?
Anyway, thanks for all of the great podcasts that you are pumping out! My crafty, nerdy self approves!
You’re welcome, Jenny. I love your work so much. It always makes me happy when it pops up in my Instagram feed. Now that we live nearer to one another I hope we get a chance to meet in person sometime soon!
Bridgeen- formerly Cherry and Cinnamon says
Sometimes blogs just come to a natural end. And I’m sure the have a natural life expectancy in the course of a small craft business career – you work a way at them in the beginning to raise profile and hopefully, if all has gone well your business takes off and you get too busy to blog often, like Jenny Hart or Cathy of California here.
I’ve recently wrapped up over on Cherry and Cinnamon, not because I no longer want to blog, but because I’m done with my small craft biz journey- . You can read more about why I stopped here: http://cherryandcinnamon.com/2014/10/31/this-is-the-end/
All the best,
Thank you for sharing the link to your final post on Cherry and Cinnamon. I think you summed up well what many people find with their blogs – that you felt caged in by a narrow topic that didn’t really feel like you. That, combined with the work of maintaining the blog for little profit, can really make it feel like a burden. I do want to encourage people to feel free to change directions within a blog. We’re all human and our interests shift over time, sometimes dramatically. It’s entirely okay to shift your blog right along with you. Over the 9.5 years I’ve been working on While She Naps I’ve shifted direction so many times. If I hadn’t, I would have abandoned this space long ago! Best of luck with your next phase. -Abby
kylie gusset says
After starting blogging in 1998 (!), I’ve been on hiatus for years – simply because it was so much work, and blogging had turned rather surreal. How do people even start a blog in 2014 without the pressure to monetize, attend conferences on being a pro AND being a pro, shell out on design, SEO and hosting, not to mention ebooks, workshops, and whatever else bloggers can add to their own cache.
I’m glad to have found and be slowly connecting to people via instagram, but blogging gave that wonderful opportunity to have your own voice, and to get really niche. After reading a year of no sugar, I’d like to explore a year of wool – what does ethical mean? Is mulesing really that big a deal considering the alternatives? How is wool natural when machine wash uses toxic chemicals banned in many countries, along with a plastic coating?
Blogging sure has changed over the time that you’ve been online, Kylie! I agree that it can be overwhelming to think about starting now. At the same time, it is totally possible to start in a humble way and to build an audience in a more organic way than pushing SEO and products. If what you create is truly great in a remarkable way, it will get shared and people will find you. At it’s core, though, it’s got to be a project you love working on.
Tsoniki Crazy Bull says
I think there are always good reasons to stop a blog, and I don’t fault anyone for that. I think it is interesting in a business sense too. Cheryl commented that she polled her blog readers and 50% of them only read blogs. Someone running a business would be in the know regarding their own customers, but I often look at what others are doing and wonder why or why they aren’t doing something. For example, I know people who only blog once in a while, because they are too busy doing other stuff that makes them money. Of course the blog is also making them money, but in a more indirect way the the immediate purchase of a pattern. I think we decide who we are writing for – ourselves, our friends, our family, our customers – and how we blog will reflect who our audience is. I still read the blogs of those people who only blog four times a month because I am interested in the patterns they make, but I can also see how it is a big turn off to others for them to only blog four times a month. There is always a balancing act because you want people to find out about you so you have a customer base, but once you have that, will they remain a customer w/o the (however constant) contact on the blog.
In considering going only with Facebook, someone said to me that “Facebook owns your content.” I haven’t checked into the validity of that statement, but if true, not sure if I would want to surrender ownership of content…despite being easier. Maybe a topic worth exploring in a future blog post. Could be motivation to keep a blog going and perhaps short form blogging will be a new emerging trend?
I think what that statement is referring to is that Facebook can, at any time, make changes to how your updates are displayed and who sees them. Users don’t have any control or input into how Facebook chooses to show user content.
When you have a blog that you host yourself, you make all of the decisions. You own the URL and you control what happens. For me, that is a factor in continuing to blog, as you say. And because Facebook owns Instagram the same is true for that platform.
I decided to look into it and this is what I found out. I’m not sure that I want to grant FB license to use my stuff. I think I will focus on my own blog.
Does Facebook Own Your Photos, Videos and Content?
The short answer is Yes!
You may be shocked to know that the moment you post content of any kind on social media sites, including Facebook, that although you still “own” the photograph, you are effectively granting the social media website a ‘free’ license to use your content in anyway they choose for free, and you are giving them the right to let others use you picture too!
This has been such an interesting post , including the comments. I’ve blogged from 2008 , at the same time as I set up an Etsy shop. For the last six months or so I’ve blogged only rarely.
When pondering this with a friend she commented that I was “blogging at instagram now” – and I realised she was more or less right. The connections and discussions are happening over there. Yet, I agree with Sara and her very thoughtful comment above – that a picture alone is just a snippet . And I notice when looking at other Instagram streams that feature , for example a work in progress picture, that I then have to back track and try and find all the elements of the story , in amongst shots of coffee and kids.
I”m not sure what the answer is. I think for me ,in part the slow down in blogging coincides with a change in direction and I”ve struggled with how to blog my way through that. I don’t feel ready to stop blogging though and am feeling inspired to look for a new way to use it – maybe to fill out what I’ve shown on Instagram. But also, to give myself permission to blog through the changes rather than waiting till I had it all sussed out, which is what I think I”ve been doing.
Anyway , thanks Abby and all the interesting commenters.
Hi Abby! It´s the very first time I write to you, but I´ve been reading you for about two years.I live in Argentina and english isn´t my first language,so sometimes it´s a lil bit difficult to understand every single word you write.Besides this,your blog has been really helpful and has encouraged me to design my own critters and believe in handmade.Ijust wanted to say thank you for taking the time to do what you do,being a mom,bookwriter and having your own bussiness.Thank Abby,you rule! Hugs from the South of Southamerica,Lola
Yep, I too have noticed a decline in posts even from bloggers I follow it’s easier to snap and post to Instagram. Even I have fallen into this to just snap and post incrementally about ta project on instagram or facebook. Even more “instantly gratifying” I guess. We are all in a hurry. I love the topics on your blog they really help us little people who have few readers, a niche we can’t quite find and not feeling “expertish” in any particular area. I just want to make pretty things and be surrounded by nature, is that so wrong? : )
Anita L says
I have been blogging for just over three years and it’s only now that I feel like my blog is really starting to take off. It takes time to build up an audience and followers. I love Instagram and Facebook for giving quick updates but my blog allows me to go deeper in depth on a subject. It’s also a great place to host giveaways and write tutorials. People don’t appreciate their Instagram and Facebook feeds getting filled up with loads of photos from one person so if I want to post a lot of pictures my blog is the place to do it. You also need a blog to enter linky parties and online events such as Blogger’s Quilt Festival. I am happy to keep blogging for the time being and I hope to use my blog to grow my online business and hopefully promote myself in future endeavors. I really do not like to put my children in childcare so it’s important for me to be a stay at home Mom but I would like to be able to make money from home as well. If nothing else, hopefully it can help fund my (very expensive) passion for quilting and crafting.
Sonia / Cozy Memories says
Hi ! That’s my first comment here 🙂
I’ve been blogging over ten years, on various platforms, first for pleasure & for documenting my life & sharing it with my friends. Then I opened my Etsy shop then moved to Bigcartel. My blog is still here, I don’t blog about my kids anymore, but posts are mostly about nature, natural dyeing, and of course my online business. I do agree that blogging is not what it used to be, and yes I think it’s because of Instagram almost exclusively. (saying that, I am on IG too) IG is faster than blogging, it takes seconds to take a photo, add a caption & zoom it is out in the world. Blogging requires more work & energy, and in a way, more love, attention & inspiration. I don’t want to stop blogging because people visit less blogs now. (including mine) You can’t possibly share as much with a photo on IG than with a whole blog post ! In a world of people already running around (including you, me, your readers & mine !), blogging feels like an oasis. That’s why even if it costs me time, energy & money, I will keep blogging. It’s like blogging was now “slow blogging” in comparison to IG being a “fast blogging”, even though I don’t consider IGing as blogging, it’s really two different things.
Thank you for your posts, for your time & for your energy !
Thank you for your comment and for sharing your experiences as a blogger, Sonia.
I’m one of the 50% one of the commenters referred to who only read blogs. Instagram just leaves me wondering where the detail is. It’s like so many news programs where the newsreaders read a headline and stop before delivering a story. Pinterest feels crowded and chaotic to me although I have found blogs I wanted to read there :-). I appreciate that blogs take time and it’s that tangible time and effort that keep me reading and reading.
I love reading blogs for exactly those reasons, Sue!
I loved Cathy’s blog, as an archive of amazing designs/designers, and I am disssspointed it doesn’t exist even as a static reference. There were many artists and craftsmen I had never heard of until I saw them on her site, and then I had a terrific exploration of their work and cultural context. I found this post because I was looking for an image I remember seeing on Cathy of California, and saw the site was not working. Cathy, please consider archiving the blog in whole. There was so much great stuff on there and it was an important design reference tool.
Unfortunately because Cathy’s blog was on Typepad, once you stop paying Typepad the blog disappears entirely. Every single page is blank. I know because my blog was once on Typepad, too, and when I migrated to WordPress I realized what can happen if you don’t bring everything over. It truly is too bad and I wish it were otherwise. Cathy’s blog was a wonderful resource.